The SS 393 insignia.

US Sub WWII  Surface Armament

The SSN 651 insignia.

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Deck Guns were intended as a surface assault weapon, but, the danger to the crew and boat was too great. So, most times the Deck gun was used as a defensive weapon. At the beginning of the war deck guns were 3"/50cal guns as seen below.
Boat captains and Squadron Commanders would often have many modifications to "improve performance" made when in upkeep. One of these was the 4"/50cal deck gun. The one below is on Pampanito SS383.
Another "improvement" was the 5"/25cal Deck Gun, as seen below.

A Navy training manual graphic of a 5"/25cal gun,  A 5"/25cal gun on the USS Bowfin
Throughout the war many different gun arrangements and combinations were tried. Most boats ended up with two deck guns and and an anti-aircraft gun on each cigarette deck. According to "Jack" Bennett who was X.O. on USS Queenfish SS393, she ended up with  two 5"/25cal Deck Guns "this was our configuration at war's end. In addition to our two portable 50 cal (Browning M2 .50cal hb machine guns)  to be mounted on each side of the bridge various combinations of 20mm and 40mm were installed between war patrols."
To learn more about the confusing gun caliber designations go to Gun's Caliber, Bore And Length.

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