Up until the US Navy started nuclear submarines on Arctic Expeditions navigation charts
for that region were based primarily on information gathered by sailing ships in the 1800's.
When SSN651 went to the Arctic a great deal of new data was garnered. Some of it was
used to update Charts (SSN651 was the first submarine to have GPS navigation). Much
of the data is still classified, but was used to help verify information gathered from satellite,
and was used to create the cartographical map of the Arctic floor seen below.

Click on the image for a larger view

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